One day, a friend and I went to visit a nearby parfumerie; reluctantly, on my part, since I don’t wear perfume because I suffer from allergies around strong odors – although perfume is preferable to some others!
Nice is about 27 km (17 miles)from the “perfume capital of the world”, Grasse, with its large parfumeries, “Fragonard” and “Molinard,” being major industries and tourist attractions. There are several options, though, as Nice has “Molinard,” Eze village has “Fragonard,” and Cagnes-sur-Mer has its “Atelier des Parfums,” all where you can do a guided visit and purchase products.
During the tour, I learned that in the 16th century, roses were added into the leather making process, as a way to hide the animal odor in gloves: at that time, animal fat was used to absorb the flowers’ fragrance, then washed with alcohol and filtered. Today, petals are distilled in a variety of methods, depending on the concentration of oil desired:
~ 1,000 kg of flowers distilled with water vapor = 1 kg of essential oil
~ 600 kg of flowers distilled with solvents = 1 kg of “absolu” (a higher concentrate)
~ 5 tons of flowers = 1 liter essential oil
Surprisingly, most flowers are imported; however, the three grown around Grasse are rose, jasmin, and violet. The most common regional flowers used in making perfume are mimosa, lavender, rose (petals), jasmine, orange blossom, violets, and broom. No wonder pure perfume is so expensive, as 10 ml of natural rose liquid costs 200 Euros!
Le “nez” (nose) is, logically, the title given to the creator of original perfume scents, and who, to begin with, must be able to recognize the smell of 400 primary scents, with an increase in repertoire possible to around 1,500-2,000 different odors. Reportedly, about 50% of “les nez” are women, with the main training center being situated in the town of Versailles.
What I found fascinating was the laboratory (more like an office library), where there were rows and rows of shelves (called an “organ”), full of bottles of scents (each one called a “note”); the combination of scents is called a “chord”, with many chords being a “composition.”
So, the “Nez” is, in fact, a ‘musical’ composer with around 80-150 different scents in one perfume!
To create your own personal composition, you may want to try to make your own perfume! (If you try this recipe, I would love to hear how it turns out.)
I learned that perfume fragrance changes with time: the first impression – that first burst of smell – of a perfume is called, “la note de tete”; after a couple of hours, you smell “la note de coeur”; and the final phase, or lingering scent, is called “la note de fond.” (although I’ve been around ladies who put on too much perfume that lingered much too long with a very strong “note de fond”!)
Following are the concentrations of the various grades of perfume, so the next time you are shopping, you’ll know the differences:
Perfume = > 20%
Eaux de parfum = 12-15%
Eaux de toilette = 8-12%
Eaux de cologne = 7%
According to an English physician of the 19th century, “a perfume should correspond to the personality, physical, emotional, and mental characteristics of its wearer, and should be as specific to each woman as the sound of her voice.” (Source: Complete Illustrated Guide to Aromatherapy).
Hmmm, I wonder what this means for me!